Richard-Amato; Chapter 1: "From Grammar-Based to Communicative Approaches: A Historical Perspective" p. 22-38
Some of the different grammar-based approaches are: audiolingualism, direct method or Berlitz method, and the cognitive-code approach. These approaches generally do not place enough emphasis on socio-cultural factors. When I was young I tried using Berlitz tape to learn German. I simultaneously listened to a dialogue on a tape recording in German and read the written script. Then the tape would prompt me to repeat what was said. I found this method restrictive and mostly unsucccesful.
Chomsky’s asserted that children are not blank slates but bring important experiences and prior knowledge to language learning. He posited that each child has a “language acquisition device” that enables them to learn language. It is like a computer with built-in programs for SLA that include: “meaning, syntax, relationships among various types of words and their functions.” He suggested that a universal grammar exists that is shared among languages. The theory of connectionism argues that the brain has patterns of neural networks that “control and constrain the types of information that the brain can internalize” (R-A 29). I am still somewhat confused about the contributions and accuracy of connectionism.